Read e-book online The Foundations of Modern Science in the Middle Ages: Their PDF

By Edward Grant

ISBN-10: 0521567629

ISBN-13: 9780521567626

Opposite to triumphing opinion, the roots of contemporary technological know-how have been planted within the old and medieval worlds lengthy sooner than the clinical Revolution of the 17th century. certainly, that revolution could were not possible with no the cumulative antecedent efforts of 3 nice civilizations: Greek, Islamic, and Latin. With the medical riches it derived through translation from Greco-Islamic assets within the 12th and 13th centuries, the Christian Latin civilization of Western Europe begun the final leg of the highbrow trip that culminated in a systematic revolution that remodeled the area. the standards that produced this special fulfillment are present in the way in which Christianity built within the West, and within the invention of the collage in 1200. A reference for historians of technological know-how or these attracted to medieval background, this quantity illustrates the advancements and discoveries that culminated within the medical Revolution.

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Abu Ma'shar's Introduction to Astronomy was an astrological work that incorporated numerous ideas and concepts from Aristotle's natural books. Many twelfth-century scholars first met the doctrines of Aristotle through Abu Ma/shar's treatise. But this trickle of isolated Aristotelian ideas was soon overwhelmed by the translations of his works. manuscripts survive from that period, indicating that Aristotle's treatises had little direct influence in that century. The situation is dramatically altered by the middle of the thirteenth century, however, by which time manuscripts of Aristotle's works turn up in large numbers.

In the Latin world, most of them circulated independently of Aristotle's genuine works. They seem to have appealed to a different social group than that in the university environment, where, with a few exceptions, they had little impact and were rarely cited in works on natural philosophy. Among the exceptions are the Book of Causes (Liber de causis, translated by Gerard of Cremona), which was based on Proclus's Elements of Theology and was especially influential among theologians, eliciting commentaries from Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas; On the Causes of the Properties of the Elements (De causis proprietatibus elementorum), which appears in numerous manuscript codices of Aristotle's natural books and exerted a major influence in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries; and, finally, although less important for natural philosophy than the first two treatises, the Secret of Secrets (Secretum secretorum), which presents a large number of maxims that ostensibly encapsulate the wisdom that Aristotle was said to have transmitted to ancient rulers.

At the initial "request of Radolf, a series of mathematical questions was posed and the answers were circulated not only to the two correspondents but also to others who seem to have acted as judges in what may aptly be described as a scientific tournament. Ragimbold and Radolf had only a meager and fragmentary knowledge of geometry. Because of their ignorance of Greek and Arabic mathematics, they were dependent on tidbits of geometry drawn from Roman surveying manuals and on the genuine and dubious writings of Boethius.

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The Foundations of Modern Science in the Middle Ages: Their Religious, Institutional and Intellectual Contexts by Edward Grant


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