By Rajni Hatti-Kaul
A mix of polymers, or one polymer and a salt, in an aqueous medium separates into stages: this phenomenon comes in handy in biotechn- ogy for product separations. Separation of organic molecules and debris in those aqueous two-phase structures (ATPS) was once initiated over forty years in the past via P.-Å. Albertsson, and later proved to be of substantial software in biochemical and mobile organic examine. a lift within the program of ATPS used to be visible while difficulties of separations in biotechnology techniques have been encountered. Its simplicity, biocompatibility, and amenability to effortless scaleup operations make using ATPS very beautiful for large-scale bioseparations. regardless of the benefits ATPS enjoys over different separation concepts, the appliance of two-phase structures has for a very long time been restrained to chose labora- ries. fresh years have, although, proven a development within which expanding numbers of researchers hire two-phase partitioning suggestions in either easy and utilized examine.
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Extra info for Aqueous two-phase systems. Methods and protocols
10. The volume of the bottle is calculated from the weight of the empty bottle, the water filled bottle and the density of water at the measurement temperature, obtained from standard tables. The density of each phase is then calculated from its mass and the volume of the pycnometer. 2. Electrostatic Potential Difference 1. 0 M KCl. 2. Reversible Ag/AgCl electrodes are made by cleaning two 1 cm2 squares of pure silver with xylene, acetone and distilled water followed by a brief immersion in 5 N HNO3 until the surfaces appear uniformly white.
This drop profile, along with the difference in density between the phases, is the input required for the software that calculates the interfacial tension and contact angle (see Note 7). 9. The density difference must be determined at the same temperature as the sample when the profile is recorded. A small volume pycnometer is weighed dry, then filled with distilled water and equilibrated at the desired temperature, filling the bottle initially with water at a lower temperature than the measurement.
So, although reported binodals provide a good starting point for the preparation of two-phase systems, they should be used as general reference only. The preparation of aqueous two-phase systems is quite straightforward. Normally, it involves the preparation of the stock solutions of all the phase components, which are then mixed in appropriate amounts (by weight), and then the emulsion is allowed to separate into two phases under gravity or in a centrifuge. After complete phase separation is achieved, the phases can be sampled.
Aqueous two-phase systems. Methods and protocols by Rajni Hatti-Kaul