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By James Edwin Creighton

ISBN-10: 1402199635

ISBN-13: 9781402199639

This Elibron Classics version is a facsimile reprint of a 1905 version by means of the Macmillan corporation, long island.

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Ockham tells us that when the su bj e c t of this proposition is t a ken to su pp osi t for what was white, then this proposition is equivalent to 'Something which was white was black'. However, this latter p rop o siti on is am biguou s . One way to read it is as follows: 'Something which was white at s ome past time was black at some past time'. On this rea din g the proposition in question is possibly true, since it does not imply that somethin·g was both white and black at the same time. A second way to read it is this : 'Some­ thing was both black and white at the sam e time in the past '.

P26) A negative Q•proposition, 'That A was not B', where 'that A' is supposit for something which was A, is true if and only if 'That A is not B' was true at every p as t time . taken to (P27) A past-tense non-modal A-proposition , 'Every A was B', where 'A' is taken to supposit only for what was A, is true if and only if (i) 'Every (ii) 'Every A is B' was true at every past time at which there was something for which 'A' supp osited . A is B' was true at some past time and (P28) A p ast-tense non-modal I-proposition, 'Some A was B' , whe re 'A' is taken to supposit only for wh at was A, is true if and only if 'Some is B' was true at some past time .

Hence, 'Socrates is a man ' js not necessary . (The same holds, in­ terestingly enough, for 'Socrates is S oc rates' . ) On the other hand, 'God exists' is necessary, since God is not a contingent being. However, 'God is a creator' is not necessary, since God could have chosen not to create anything, in which case 'God is a cre­ ator' would have been false. When propositions of the form of (20) or (2 1 ) are ·taken in the sense of division (or divided sense), the explication of their truth conditions becomes more complicated .

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An Introductory Logic by James Edwin Creighton

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