By B. R. Hergenhahn, Tracy Henley
Goals questioned early guy, Greek philosophers spun problematic theories to provide an explanation for human reminiscence and notion, Descartes postulated that the mind was once choked with "animal spirits," and psychology used to be formally deemed a "science" within the nineteenth century. during this 7th variation of AN creation TO THE background OF PSYCHOLOGY, authors Hergenhahn and Henley display that almost all of the troubles of up to date psychologists are manifestations of issues which have been a part of psychology for hundreds--or even thousands--of years. The book's a variety of photos and pedagogical units, besides its biographical fabric on key figures in psychology, interact readers and facilitate their figuring out of every chapter.
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Extra info for An Introduction to the History of Psychology (7th Edition)
A theory of human nature attempts to specify what is universally true about humans. That is, it attempts to specify what all humans are equipped with at birth. One question of interest here is, How much of our animal heritage remains in human nature? For example, are we inherently aggressive? Yes, say the Freudians; no, say members of the humanistic camp, such as Rogers and Maslow. Or perhaps our nature is neither good nor bad but shaped by experience, as behaviorists like Watson and Skinner claim?
There are at least two reasons for this limitation. First, behavior typically has many causes. As Freud said, much behavior is overdetermined; that is, behavior is seldom, if ever, caused by a single event or even a few events. Rather, a multitude of interacting events typically causes behavior. Second, some causes of behavior may be fortuitous. For example, a reluctant decision to attend a social event may result in meeting one’s future spouse. ” He gives the following example: It is not uncommon for college students to decide to sample a given subject matter only to leave enrollment in a particular course to the vagaries of time allocation and course scheduling.
61) So for Popper, scientific activity starts with a problem, and the problem determines what observations scientists will make. The next step is to propose solutions to the problem (conjectures) and then attempt to find fault with the proposed solutions (refutations). Popper saw scientific method as involving three stages: problems, theories (proposed solutions), and criticism. Principle of Falsifiability. According to Popper, the demarcation criterion that distinguishes a scientific theory from a nonscientific theory is the principle of falsifiability.
An Introduction to the History of Psychology (7th Edition) by B. R. Hergenhahn, Tracy Henley