By N. A. Simmons
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Extra resources for An Introduction to Microbiology for Nurses
It is contamination after treatment which can cause trouble. A fractured water pipe in relation to a drain can pass bacteria directly into the drinking water. Control is achieved by repeatedly checking the bacteriological quality of water. Transfer of infection by animals is usually controlled by attempting to remove the animals. In most cases this is not easy to accomplish. Thus although insecticides will reduce the population of insects, it is impossible to remove them all. If the disease in question is one which is confined to man, by denying the insects access to cases of disease the chain of infection will be broken.
Reactions between antigens and antibodies can be demonstrated in the laboratory by several methods. If a suspension of bacteria is mixed with the appropriate antibody, the bacteria will stick together in c l u m p s — A G G L U T I N A T I O N . If the antigen is one in solution, the addition of the specific 42 Microbiology for Nurses antibody will result in a combination of the t w o reactants, which under suitable conditions will precipitate out of solution—PRECIPITATION. In this instance if the soluble antigen is a toxin the resultant toxin-antibody combination will no longer cause the damage which characterised the toxin before the reaction took place.
This is a general reaction of body tissues to a noxious agent, be it bacterial, chemical or physical in nature. Following the entry into the tissues of an organism a series of changes take place. The small blood vessels increase in diameter and the rate of blood flow increases; the area becomes redder and warmer than its surroundings. The walls of the blood vessels allow plasma to escape into the tissue spaces and the white cells of the blood migrate into the tissue. This causes a swelling of the part.
An Introduction to Microbiology for Nurses by N. A. Simmons