Read e-book online Advances In Modal Logic Volume 4 PDF

By Michael Zakharyaschev

ISBN-10: 0954300610

ISBN-13: 9780954300616

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Extra info for Advances In Modal Logic Volume 4

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Individual names may be given not only to real objects, but also to imaginary ones, as for instance, to literary personages ('Falstaff') or localities created in a literary work (Faulkner's 'Yoknapatawpha County'). On the other hand, the names that we give to some objects because of certain properties possessed by these objects, are called general names. The general names, for example: 'building', 'chair', 'student ofthe Law Department' relate to every object of this particular kind, hence to all objects possessing the properties of a building, of achair, of a student of the Law Department.

The examples cited above do not arouse any doubts. We dealt there with designata of concrete names, with things or persons, thus with objects in the strict sense of the word; objects occupying a certain portion of space at some definite moment. The word 'object', however, is sometimes used in a far broader sense. Thus we can say that 'the object of our thought' is anything to which our thought is directed. But it may be directed not only to things, but also to properties common to a number ofthings, to relations, to happenings, and so on.

Warsaw', however, is an individual name because it denotes a certain 28 PART I-FORMULATION OF THOUGHTS BY MEANS OF WORDS town, not any other. It denotes it not on account of its properties, but because once upon a time this place was named in this manner. A similar individual name is the word 'Sophia'. A number of women have this name, but whenever we use this name we refer it normally to some one, definite woman, not to any other. We may, therefore, say that the word 'Sophia' has many meanings, but in every one of its meanings it is a name for some individual person.

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Advances In Modal Logic Volume 4 by Michael Zakharyaschev


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