By Alan Cruse
This easy-to-use consultant illuminates key thoughts and phrases in semantics and pragmatics and the learn of that means because it is conveyed via language.
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Extra resources for A Glossary of Semantics and Pragmatics
The most straightforward way of relating word meanings to concepts is to say that they are the same. 793 02 pages 001-202 31/3/06 10:19 Page 31 A GLOSSARY OF SEMANTICS AND PRAGMATICS conceptual axiology 31 see Natural Semantic Metalanguage Conceptual Metaphor Theory This is a theory of metaphor developed by Lakoff. The basic idea is that metaphor is essentially a relation between conceptual domains, whereby ways of talking about one domain (the ‘source domain’) can be applied to another domain (the ‘target domain’) by virtue of ‘correspondences’ between the two.
In linguistics, the term sometimes has a different meaning. It is used to refer to a phrase that, like an idiom, is stored in the mental lexicon in a ready-made form, but, unlike an idiom, is semantically transparent. Examples are: This is a tax-and-spend Government, You’ll have to wait and see. closed set items These are grammatical elements, either affixes or free words, which have three main characteristics: 1. In a grammatical sentence the possibilities of omitting or substituting them without affecting the grammaticality of the sentence are very limited or non-existent.
With this approach, everything that satisfies a definition has equal status in a category. This does not explain why, typically, some members of a category are felt to be more central and others more peripheral. For theories which attempt to deal with one or more of these objections, see prototype theory, exemplar theory, the ‘theory’ theory. classifiers In many languages it is not possible to count things directly, in the manner of the English three cows, six books, and so on. One must use a special grammatical element called a classifier, usually either a separate word or an affix, that encodes some semantic property of the noun being counted.
A Glossary of Semantics and Pragmatics by Alan Cruse