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By Manfred Krifka, Austinlsaarbriicken

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Evolution by natural selection implies Common Descent with a Single Origin, whereas evolution by natural selection and by natural conventions leads to Common Descent with Multiple Origins. (This is not the old theory that cells originated many times, because the multiple origins are referred to codes not to cells). The idea that natural conventions bring absolute novelties into existence is equivalent to saying that life has not lost its creative power in the course of time. The origin of embryos, the origin of the mind, or the origin of language, for example, do not seem to be less of a novelty than the origin of the cell.

Coding cannot be reduced to copying because they are mechanisms that belong to different levels of organization. 2 The Mechanisms of Evolution 4 29 Natural Selection and Natural Conventions Natural selection is based on molecular copying, more precisely on the indefinite repetition of a process of molecular copying in a world of limited resources, and this means that natural selection would be the sole mechanism of evolution if molecular copying were the sole basic mechanism of life. As a matter of fact, this could have happened.

The actual cytoskeleton, in reality, is an integrated system of three different cytoskeletons made of filaments (microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments) each of which gives a specific contribution to the three-dimensional form of the cell and to its mobility. The driving force of the cytosleton is a very unusual mechanism that biologists have decided to call dynamic instability. The cytoskeletal filaments, especially microtubules and microfilaments, are in a state of continuous flux where monomers 2 The Mechanisms of Evolution 23 are added to one end and taken away at the other, and the filament is growing or shortening according to which end is having the fastest run.

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A Compositional Semantics for Multiple Focus by Manfred Krifka, Austinlsaarbriicken

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